[i=s] 本帖最后由 tony 于 2010-9-6 16:11 编辑 [/i]
As a result of the state policy of sending scholars to study overseas and recruit scholars from abroad, 77 per cent of the presidents of Chinese universities, 84 per cent of the academicians at the Chinese Academy of Sciences and 75 per cent of the academicians at the Chinese Academy of Engineering have overseas study and/or work experience. The official data do not make a distinction between those who received a PhD degree from overseas universities and those who went abroad as a visiting scholar or for some short-term courses. The official number therefore conceals two distinct career paths. One path began with domestic education and continued with career advancement within the system. Prior to further advancement to more prominent positions, candidates were selected and sent to overseas universities. Their overseas study experience is a short episode in the career path of "sponsored mobility". The other path began with a foreign degree and eventually led to prominent positions in Chinese universities, Chinese Academy of Sciences or Chinese Academy of Engineering. While those on the first path do not theoretically belong to the category of global talent attracted to China, official data lump both groups together as overseas returnees. The Chinese government simply uses the numbers cited above to argue for the working of its talent schemes.
In December 2008, the Central Organisation Department launched the "[color=#FF0000]One Thousand Talents Scheme[/color]" (qian ren jihua). Compared with earlier programmes such as the Chinese Academy of Sciences' "100-Talents Scheme" and the Ministry of Education's "Yangtze River Scholar Scheme", which continue, the new scheme not only sets the bar higher, but also casts the net wider. It aims to attract three groups of top-class minds who have an academic title equivalent to professor in internationally well-known universities and institutions, or work as a senior managing staff within a well-known international company or banking institution, or have developed technologies and patents and established their own businesses abroad.
According to this scheme, four types of organisation can apply to recruit global talent through the scheme. These organisations are national innovation projects (guojia zhongdian chuangxin xiangmu), key scientific subjects and laboratories (zhongdian xueke he zhongdian shiyan shi), central government-owned enterprises and state-owned banking institutions and high-tech parks (gaoxin jishu chanye kaifa qu). Alternatively, candidates can send their applications directly to the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, the State Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs, the All-China Youth Federation, the China Association for Science and Technology and the Western Returned Scholars Association.
The Office for Attracting High Level Overseas Talent established by the Central Organisational Department will coordinate the evaluation and selection process. The Ministry of Science and Technology will evaluate candidates for national innovation projects and work with the Ministry of Education to evaluate candidates for key subjects and laboratories. The State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council and the People's Bank of China will evaluate those applying for positions with state-owned enterprises and banking institutions. Finally, the Ministry of Science and Technology and Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security will evaluate talent with entrepreneurial skills.
Organisations participating in the scheme are required to provide good career opportunities and working conditions to those who are selected. Those chosen have favourable chances for leading research institutes, state-owned banking institutions or government-funded key research programmes. They can apply for research and industrial development funds provided by the Chinese government and apply to be an academician at the Chinese Academy of Sciences or an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering.
Non-Chinese professionals and their families can apply for Permanent Residence or multiple-entry visas valid for two to five years. For all professionals selected by the scheme, the central government will provide each with one million yuan as a one-time subsidy in addition to their salaries, which should be comparable to the remuneration of their previous job. Moreover, the selected talent and their families will be able to enjoy various social security benefits.
The Overseas Students and Experts Service Centre, under the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, will open special service windows to help professionals handle paperwork and get settled, including Permanent Residence or household registration and schooling for their children.
Li Yuanchao, head of the Central Organisation Department, is keen to push this scheme forward. He had learned the importance and skills of attracting overseas returnees when he was the Party Secretary of Jiangsu Province before his promotion to his current position. Li has a stake in managing the new scheme well, which can add credit to his bid for membership in China's top leadership--the Standing Committee of the CPC--in the 18th Party Congress to be held in 2012.
The scheme plans to recruit 2,000 top talent over the next five to ten years and will consider any nationality. By April 2009, the scheme had lured the first batch of 96 scientists and 26 entrepreneurs to China. Of the group, more than 80 hold foreign passports and four are of non-Chinese origin.
[b] Promoting Local Technopreneurship[/b]
China has been reshaping its national science and technology policy to be more enterprise-led and commercial-oriented. Under this reorientation, China has been actively recruiting entrepreneurs in high-tech industries, such as the internet, IT, communication and media, as well as professionals in high-end service industries like finance and accounting, consulting, law, media, publishing, public relations, advertising, tourism, meetings and exhibitions and education. By February 2009, China had established more than 110 overseas returnee entrepreneurship incubation centres, with more than 8,000 enterprises and 20,000 returnees.
While the central government has placed priority on recruiting top scientists and academics, local governments have been very active in attracting high-tech entrepreneurs. The best known example is Beijing's Zhong Guan Cun Science and Technology Park, which has established 25 incubation centres. By the end of 2007, Zhong Guan Cun incubation centres had attracted 4,200 companies. Among the returnee entrepreneurs in Zhong Guan Cun, 44 per cent have patents.
Provincial level governments have recognised the importance of returnee entrepreneurship for local economic growth. They are now willing to spend on a variety of talent schemes, in some cases as much as that offered by the central government. Jiangsu Province initiated a scheme targeting innovative returnee entrepreneurs in the 11th Five-Year Plan period (2006-2011). It planned to spend 100 million RMB every year. More than one million RMB will be provided as financial support to each of the selected talent. In 2008, total spending was increased to 200 million yuan every year, to attract 150 high-level innovative and entrepreneurial talent annually.
Beijing has a number of schemes to promote returnee entrepreneurship. In December 2008 it set up an Overseas Students and Scholars Service Centre to help recruit overseas Chinese. Shanghai initiated China's first talent scheme as early as 1992. It is now competing for global talent through the "10,000 Overseas Returnees Cluster Project". This project has attracted more than 20,000 overseas returnees who created over 4,000 enterprises.
Large cities in coastal regions are in an advantaged position to attract overseas returnees. Among an estimated total of 300,000 to 400,000 returnees, about 100,000 have chosen to live in Beijing, 70,000 in Shanghai, 30,000 in Guangzhou, Shenzhen and other Pearl River Delta cities, nearly 100,000 in provincial capital cities and another 50,000-100,000 returnees in more remote counties.
While provincial and city governments take the lead in promoting returnee entrepreneurship, some county governments in the coastal regions have begun to follow suit. A good example is the county government of Changzhou, Jiangsu Province, which identifies four categories of returnees for recruitment: those who have developed technologies in high-tech industries, those who have intellectual property rights and patents which have great market potential, those who can bring in advanced technologies and equipment to Changzhou and those who can manage big projects and help Changzhou develop high-tech industries.
Changzhou's county government will provide three million yuan as start-up capital for selected returnee entrepreneurs. It is also willing to provide venture capital up to 15 per cent of the registered capital of the new enterprises. There are also various innovation funds for returnee entrepreneurs to apply. Finally, the Changzhou county government will provide good education and welfare benefits to the children and family of returnee entrepreneurs. By 2008, four batches of overseas returnees had been recruited to Changzhou.